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Tracking the evolution (and erosion) of land tenure

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Tracking the evolution (and erosion) of land tenure

Accelerated loss of tenure. So is the erosion of possession, by expansion, according to the new institutional survey ownership policy of the American Association of University Professors.

The last such study of the practice of staying in colleges and universities in the National Research Department of Higher Education of the U.S. Department of Education was conducted in 2004. At the time, 17 per cent of institutions said they had changed their terms of probation in the previous five years.

Today, that figure is 54 percent, according to a AAUP poll that reflects what has happened since 2004, when the federal government stopped funding a national poll. The AAUP report notes that there are some problems with this comparison, such as not knowing how many institutions added tenure terms over the same period. However, the group is alarmed by the threefold increase in the number of institutions that report on shortening their tenure and replacing them with non-eligible appointments, and many other studies track the long-term transition from full-time faculty to conditional academic work. (According to the federal data for 2019, which refers to AAUP, about 10 percent of teaching appointments are full-time, 27 percent – full-time, 20 percent – full and 43 percent – part-time.)

Most institutions now also report a post-internship review policy of 58 per cent, compared with 46 per cent in 2000 (statistics for 2000 are not from a federal survey but from a study of teacher handbooks by researchers). Katie Tower).

Only 27 percent of institutions currently have a review process that could lead to termination of staff appointments, however. The AAUP does not consider post-tenure revision necessary or even beneficial to the institution of possession, but it and other proponents of possession care much more about potentially punitive processes than about processes that only develop. AAUP described the revision process adopted last year by the Board of Regents of the Georgia University System as especially seriouslyas this allows institutions to dismiss professors without the involvement of faculty.

The AAUP says its survey represents 1,200 doctoral, master’s or bachelor’s degree institutions. The group sent out a questionnaire to a sample of 515 top researchers and gave a response rate of 53 percent.

In addition to the main findings on ownership, the AAUP survey sheds light on how diversity, equity and inclusion now affect ownership processes, as these issues were not part of previous national studies. Asked whether their institutions include clear DEI criteria in their standards, 22 percent of respondents said yes.

By type of institution, about 30 percent of doctoral universities said their standards of residence have DEI criteria, compared to 19 percent of master’s degrees and 18 percent of undergraduate institutions. At 46% of large institutions reported having these criteria compared to 16% and 15% in medium and small institutions respectively.

In some cases, such criteria have been deemed controversial, and groups such as the Foundation for the Rights of the Person in Education argue that professors’ assessment of their contribution to the DEI violates their academic freedom. But Jörg Tiede, AAUP’s director of research and author of the survey report, said the association disagreed with the statement that the DEI criteria were “political litmus test or something like an oath of allegiance.”

Apart from anecdotes and arguments, Tide added to this poll that “it was not really known how widespread the practice was.”

About 39 percent of institutions also said they had revised their standards for implicit biases, with larger institutions more likely to do so than others. In some cases, these reviews have led to changes, such as the elimination of student course assessments (which are often reflect the bias of students) from the process of owning or expanding owning standards to more weigh the types of services that are disproportionate fall on color teachers.

Over the past five years, 40 per cent of institutions have trained members of the promotion and appointment committees on implicit bias, with larger institutions doing so. On this occasion, some respondents said they were concerned about external influences, for example new state laws against the so-called divisive concepts in education – limiting their progress.

However, 50 percent of institutions that do not have DEI criteria said they are considering adding them in the future. About 55 percent of institutions that have not recently revised their standards of ownership for bias have considered this.

Additional findings

In accordance with the recommendations and standards of the AAUP that are followed, the review must take place no later than six years after the end of the probationary period of the professor. A new poll found that 97 percent of institutions have a fixed-term probationary period. This is slightly more than in 2004, when the figure was 91 percent. The average duration remains about six years.

Although the AAUP strongly supports clear tenure, the association in 2001 recommended that agencies suspend tenure if the candidate has a child, each time for up to one year. A new poll found that such a family care policy is now much more common (even the norm) than it was in the 2000 Trauer study: 82 percent vs. 17 percent. And of those institutions that today offer day-offs, 93 percent offer them to parents regardless of gender.

Fifty-one percent of institutions explicitly allow you to end your stay in care for the elderly. But many respondents noted that such leave can be arranged for various reasons. Virtually all doctoral institutions offer a one-day shutdown, compared to about three-quarters of small and undergraduate institutions.

In addition to statistics, the AAUP report notes the “long-term, fragmented and gender impact of such policies on primary caregivers,” given that women are more likely to stop watching and thus postpone opportunities for promotion and promotion for the rest of their careers. . “Certainly, we need to look for alternative mechanisms to avoid this result,” the AAUP report added. (This criticism of the termination of service pandemic-related pauses are also charged for the same reasons.)

The AAUP has long opposed quotas for the position or limiting the proportion of teachers eligible for the position or position that some institutions say they need to maintain financial flexibility. The federal-funded survey last asked about ownership quotas in 1988, when 18 percent of institutions had some kind of quota, formal or informal. Today, the figure is 9 percent. Most often they had smaller institutions.

Initially, the AAUP opposed property quotas, arguing that institutions could eventually raise standards of ownership if they needed to. She later abandoned the instruction, fearing that the institutions would be unfair to eligible scholars. A federal-funded survey regularly questioned the stringency of ownership standards, finding in 2004 that 13 percent of institutions had made their standards “stricter” in the past five years. AAUP found that current responses to this question vary by institution size and type: 9 percent of small institutions, 16 percent of medium-sized institutions, and 39 percent of large institutions reported that they have raised standards of ownership.

Of those, 79 percent said they raised research standards, 41 percent said they raised learning standards and 24 percent said services.

“Although ownership is regularly attacked by both institutional practice and legislation, it continues to support academic freedom,” the AAUP report concluded. In this light, “it is necessary to systematically and regularly study the practices associated with possession.”

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